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Humerus Bone Anatomy

By Jayton Miller

Humerus Bone Anatomy

Imagine having an arm that was attached to the shoulder from the elbow. We would all be walking around like a T-Rex. This is one of the many reasons that the humerus is such an important bone. Not only does it ensure that we don’t look like ancient reptilians, but it plays a fundamental role in the movement of our arms and allows us to be much more function in a myriad of ways.


Function Of The Humerus:

Functions Of The Humerus


The humerus is the main bone of the upper arm. It is the longest and largest bone of the upper limbs and lies in between the shoulder joint and the elbow joint connecting the forearm and hand to the rest of the body.

Structure Of The Humerus:

Structure of The Humerus

The humerus consists of three main parts:

  • The Proximal End - This part of the humerus is what connects to the shoulder joint.
    • The proximal area is made up of a head that lies in the joint of the shoulder, an anatomical neck that marks the place of where the growth plate was, and the surgical neck which is one of the main places fractures are seen.
  • The Shaft - This is the middle part of the humerus bone.
    • The upper half of this section is cylindrical and as it makes its way down towards the distal end it begins to form a triangular shape.
  • The Distal End - This part of the humerus is what connects to the elbow joint.
    • This part of the humerus has two epicondyles a lateral one and a medial one. The more prominent medial epicondyle is also known as the funny bone.

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Common Challenges With The Humerus:

Common Challenges With the Humerus


When it comes to the humerus, fractures are the most common type of injury. Most of them at the upper end of the humerus are at the surgical neck as mentioned earlier. Occasionally there are fractures in the middle of the humerus towards the distal end but these areas of fractures are most common in children and can cause nerve damage. Most of the time these happen by landing on an outstretched hand. Learning how to fall properly can, in many cases, prevent this from happening. I personally recommend taking up a form of grappling such as Brazilian Jiu Jitsu to learn this skill.

Easy Ways To Keep The Humerus Healthy:

Easy Ways To Keep The Humerus Healthy


Keeping the humerus healthy is no different than keeping any other bone in your body body healthy. Ways to keep your humerus healthy include:

  • Resistance Training - Resistance training is a great way to take care of and fortify your bones in general. Focusing on upper body movements that involve the humerus can effectively strengthen it over time.
  • Healthy Eating - Getting enough calcium and other important minerals and vitamins in your diet to help prevent nutrient deficiencies is going to be the biggest factor when it comes to keeping the humerus healthy. 

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If you do happen to injure your humerus and need to recover we recommend talking to a physical therapist to guide you in exercises to strengthen the bone and bring it back to full strength.


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Overall, the humerus plays an extremely important role in the function of the upper limbs of the body. Allowing for movement at the shoulder joint and providing a connection to the elbow. If you would like to learn about ways to optimize your overall health through nutrition and exercise make sure to check out our educational platform UMZUfit!